Социальные запросы россиян к государству: факторы формирования и межстрановые сравнения

English title: Social Attitudes of Russians to the State: the Factors of their Formation and Cross-country Comparisons

Author(s): Alla Salmina -

Language: Russian

Type: Journal article

Year: 2012


With an apparent increase in social inequality between different population groups in Russia, the study of social attitudes to the state with regards to its role in reducing inequality and providing social support becomes an issue of great interest to social researchers. Compared to other European countries, Russia has a very high level of inequalities both in terms of income and the accessibility of the social services provided by the state (healthcare, the assistance to families with children, etc). And these levels continue to grow. The persistence of these social problems and deepening of inequality provoke an increase in social tension. This may consequently result in the relapse of various conflicts in the society. The risk is particularly high when existing inequality is perceived as illegitimate and unlawful by the population. The problem of control over the level of inequality is closely connected with social support and protection policies of the government. In their essence, the measures of social support are to compensate the excessive and unlawful social inequalities. So it is very important to understand what attitudes the society has to the government in the sphere of social assistance – both in general and in every particular profile (employment, healthcare, pensions, family protection, etc.); as well as the uniqueness of Russia in this respect, and the grounds for these social attitudes. The results of the study presented in the article shed light on some important problems concerning both particular social attitudes of Russians in comparison with other countries and the factors of their formation, including those associated with the group affiliation which determine this identity. The empirical data come from the European Social Survey 2008. The survey suits perfectly well for the cause of this research, since it allows accounting for the influence of structural heterogeneity on the social needs of the population (such as occupational status, income level, education, etc.). It is believed that Russians traditionally exposed rather high requirements to the government with respect to reducing inequalities as well as providing wide social support. However, if compared to other countries and accounting for the real socioeconomic situation in these countries, these social attitudes do not appear that much unique. The reason for such high requirements of Russians for the social support and decrease in inequality lies not in the Russians’ strive for the equalization, but, above all, in the presence of social problems in the country both at the level of an individual and of the state in general. According to the results of the regressive analysis of the ESS data, the main determiners of the social requirements of the Russians are the social support indicators – the level of income and the concerns about the possible aggravation of their social and economic state in future. The social attitudes of the Russians are strongly influenced by respondents’ evaluation of the situation of socially vulnerable groups of population. Above that, the level of education proved to be a very influential factor. The social attitudes are also very much influenced by the peculiarities of the country, particularly the value system of the people and their opinion about the lawful level of inequality. All of this appears to be important to assess the prospects and trends in the dynamic of the social structure of Russian society, as well as for effective formation of its social policy. And it gets even more important today – two decades after implementing the radical liberal reforms – when the model of state’s social policy and the attitudes of population towards its desired state have been more or less shaped

Volume: 21

Issue: 3

From page no: 133

To page no: 164

Refereed: Yes


Journal: Mir Rossii - Universe of Russia