English title: Cultural Values and Group-Related Attitudes: A Comparison of Individuals With and Without Migration Background Across 24 Countries
Author(s): David Schiefer -
Type: Journal article
This paper argues that individuals’ attitudes towards members of other groups are at least partly shaped by the cultural environment the individuals live in. Based on the theory of cultural values by Schwartz it was tested whether cross-country differences in cultural value preferences can explain individual differences in negative group-related attitudes. Furthermore, the present article postulates that individuals with a migration background are less strongly guided by the cultural values of the society they live in, because they are additionally exposed to cultural values originating from their heritage culture. Samples from 24 countries that were part of the fourth wave of the European Social Survey were examined. Cultural values were assessed using the Portrait Value Questionnaire. Group-related attitudes were operationalized through an index of attitudes towards four different groups. Analyses of hierarchical linear models supported the hypotheses: Participants’ degree of negative group-related attitudes varied as a function of the cultural values inherent in the individuals’ countries. Moreover, weaker effects were found for individuals with migration background compared to individuals without migration background, especially for first-generation immigrants and immigrants from culturally more distant countries. Moreover, country-level cultural values were found to moderate the relationship of individual education and income level with group-related attitudes. Results are discussed with regard to their contribution to the literature on acculturation and with regard to the validity of Schwartz’s cultural value theory.
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Journal: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology