English title: Cross-National Variation in the Size of Sex Differences in Values: Effects of Gender Equality

Author(s): Shalom H. Schwartz - Tammy Rubel-Lifschitz -

Language: English

Type: Journal article

Year: 2009


How does gender equality relate to men’s and women’s value priorities? We hypothesize that, for both sexes, the importance of benevolence, universalism, stimulation, hedonism and self-direction values increases with greater gender equality whereas the importance of power, achievement, security, and tradition values decreases. Of particular relevance to thepresent study, increased gender equality should also permit both sexes to pursue more freely the values they inherently care about more. Drawing on evolutionary and role theories, we postulate that woman inherently value benevolence and universalism more than men, whereas men inherently value power, achievement, and stimulation more than women. Thus, as gender equality increases sex differences in these values should increase, whereas sex differences in other values should not be affected by increases in gender equality. Studies of 25 representative national samples and of students from 68 countries confirmed the hypotheses except for tradition values. Implications for cross-cultural research on sex differences in values and traits are discussed.

Volume: 97

Issue: 1

From page no: 171

To page no: 185

Refereed: Yes

DOI: 10.1037/A0015546

Journal: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

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