English title: Value orientations: Measurement, antecedents and consequences across nations
Author(s): Shalom H. Schwartz -
Type: Book chapter
This chapter presents the theory of ten basic human values that guided development of the ESS human values scale. These values form a coherent system that captures the conflicts among the basic motivations that guide people’s attitudes and behaviour. Structural analyses of relations among the value items demonstrate meaning equivalence across countries. This permits drawing on the theory to generate hypotheses and explanations that use the tradeoffs among motivationally opposed values to understand the influence of values on attitudes, opinions, and behaviour, rather than offering ad hoc analyses based on value items. The chapter provides methodological explanations and instructions to facilitate the application of the value scale. The chapter describes systematic relations of age, gender, education, and income to people’s value priorities across countries. It also maps and compares the average individual value priorities in countries. A key message of the chapter is the important role that value priorities can play in explaining socially significant attitudes and behaviour at both the individual and the country level. It illustrates this with analyses of attitudes toward accepting immigrants, interpersonal trust, social involvement, organisational membership, and political activism.
From page no: 161
To page no: 193
Anthology: Measuring Attitudes Cross-Nationally: Lessons from the European Social Survey