English title: Self-Employment, Personal Values, and Varieties of Happiness-Unhappiness
Author(s): Peter Warr -
Type: Journal article
This study compares key personal values and forms of happiness between self-employed and paid workers. Values are measured through Schwartz’s established model and scale, and happiness is examined in terms of personal flourishing and both general and job-specific well-being. In two nationally-representative samples, self-employed workers are found to value self-direction and stimulation in their lives to a significantly greater degree than do paid employees, but not to differ in other types of value. Well-being differences are predicted to depend on whether workers supervise or do not supervise others, such that any well-being advantages of self-employment are expected to occur only for self-employees without subordinates. As predicted, self-employees’ job satisfaction is found to exceed that of paid employees as a whole, and primarily for those who do not supervise others. However, experienced strain in a job and context-free hedonic well-being are found to be similar between the two groups. In respect of personal flourishing, self-employed workers as a whole report significantly greater accomplishment in their lives, but as predicted that difference occurs only for individuals without supervisory responsibility. Research developments and changes to practical procedures are proposed.
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Journal: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology