English title: Individual values across cultures
Author(s): Shalom H. Schwartz -
Type: Book chapter
This chapter discusses the most influential psychological work on values as an individual difference variable, an aspect of personality. In other disciplines, there are significant literatures on values as a feature of societies and cultures. An early anthropological approach was the Kluckhohns’ Values Orientation Theory (Kluckhohn, 1951; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961). It proposed that each society is characterized by its answers to five questions that all human societies must address: human’s relations with time, with nature, and with one another, the source of human motivation, and the nature of human nature. This approach to thinking about cultural differences in values has influenced all subsequent approaches. Prominent in business, management, and cross-cultural psychology is Hofstede’s (2001) work on individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity and its extensions by the GLOBE project (e.g., House, et al., 2004). Schwartz’s (e.g., 2007) seven cultural values for capturing the value culture that underlies societal institutions (mastery, harmony, egalitarianism, hierarchy, embeddedness, and intellectual and affective autonomy) also contribute to this literature. In studies of societal development and change, Inglehart (e.g., 1997) has characterized societies on a materialist-postmaterialist dimension and, more recently, on the dimensions of survival versus self-expression and traditional versus secular/rational (Inglehart & Baker, 2000). Finally, Welzel (2013) has elaborated the concept of emancipative values’ as the source of democracy and the driving force toward universal freedoms. These and other analyses of societal values have important implications for value acquisition and change by individuals. Since the theory of basic human values caught on in the mid-1990s, psychological research on values has expanded at a rapid pace. Values are finding their rightful place as an important aspect of personality. The current chapter discussed some of the more widely studied topics.
From page no: 121
To page no: 153
Anthology: The Praeger handbook of personality across cultures. Vo.. 2