É possível sair do presente? Uma teoria prospectiva.

English title: It is possible get out of the present? A prospect theory.

Author(s): Eduardo Jorge Duque -

Language: Portugese

Type: Book chapter

Year: 2014

Abstract

In ancient societies, time was perceived as cyclical, mythical, without duration, which man tears away - as described by Mircea Eliade (1969) in Le mythe de l'éternel retour - from this chronological, historical, individual time, projecting his design at least symbolically, in a large time which can not be measured because it is not composed of any duration. In modern societies, the concept of time has taken on other connotations, to be understood as succession and continuity, designed in a more objective and scientific way, connected to the freedom of the person. In contemporary societies, marked by increasing complexity, time has become a problem, in part, due to the instability of the future. This does not allow any kind of forecast of social and organizational processes, and leads not only to a great ignorance of one’s own future, but also to the instability of the present itself. These conceptions of time, which are no more than social representations, answer for the three major forms of thought: meta-historical, historical and for-history. That said, we try in this article to understand how individuals see life at the present time and how to project for the future. To this end, we recourse to a set of variables from European Social Survey (ESS) 2012, which tried to understand the way that Europeans, particularly Portuguese and Germans, perceive their lives, how they feel in the present, and how to prepare their lives for the future. From the results, the analysis of the Europeans in general, and the Portuguese and Germans, in particular, we can infer two different types of attitudes: On the one hand, there is a clear awareness of the attitudes and feelings that they experience in relation to their present lives. Most Europeans refer to being satisfied with life, experiencing feelings of happiness, experience very positive feelings about themselves - calm and peaceful, happy, full of energy – they can find time to do what they really want, they feel that there is a direction to their lives and are optimistic about the future. In general, these positions are assumed by both the Portuguese and the Germans. On the other hand, when they analyse in the present the future perspective of their lives and what surrounds them, both Europeans as a whole, and specifically the Portuguese and Germans, demonstrate that, although they are very confident about the perception they have of their own lives, they still place some importance on finding quick answers to when something goes wrong. From the reading of these two perspectives and the theoretical view presented here, it may be concluded that there is a royal absolutism of the present time; that is, the experience of the present is not to think about the prospects of a future life, but rather mainly involves personal fulfilment in this time and its maximum use.

From page no: 154

To page no: 169

Anthology: Tempos Sociais e o Mundo Contemporâneo - As crises, As Fases e as Ruturas