English title: On the Origins of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough

Author(s): Alberto Alesina - Paola Giuliano - Nathan Nunn -

Language: English

Type: Journal article

Year: 2013


The study examines the historical origins of existing cross-cultural differences in beliefs and values regarding the appropriate role of women in society. We test the hypothesis that traditional agricultural practices influenced the historical gender division of labor and the evolution of gender norms. We find that, consistent with existing hypotheses, the descendants of societies that traditionally practiced plough agriculture today have less equal gender norms, measured using reported gender-role attitudes and female participation in the workplace, politics, and entrepreneurial activities. Our results hold looking across countries, across districts within countries, and across ethnicities within districts. To test for the importance of cultural persistence, we examine the children of immigrants living in Europe and the United States. We find that even among these individuals, all born and raised in the same country, those with a heritage of traditional plough use exhibit less equal beliefs about gender roles today. JEL Codes: D03, J16, N30.

Volume: 128

Issue: 2

From page no: 469

To page no: 530

Refereed: Yes

DOI: 10.1093/QJE/QJT005

Journal: Quarterly Journal of Economics

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