Immigration (ESS1 2002, ESS7 2014)

The module focusing on immigration and asylum issues was first fielded in 2002. Questions included measuring attitudes of immigration and perceptions of social realities as well as opinions on public policy and knowledge about immigration were included. Some items from the ESS1 (2002) module were repeated in ESS7 (2014) alongside some new items designed to strengthen the measurement of symbolic threat. Specific new items focused on contact with migrants and minorities, attitudes towards different types of migrants and biological and cultural racism.

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