Contextual variables

The selection of variables is based one the recommendations in the report of the ESS Upgrade and Planning Group on Contextual Data: 'Conceptual and Statistical Issues in Multilevel Analysis'. We have also tried to find variables that could be relevant for the rotating modules in the ESS.

The regional variables are downloaded every second year. The variables downloaded in 2012, have been merged with the ESS4 and ESS5 survey data. The variables downloaded in 2014, have been merged with the ESS6. The variables downloaded in 2016 have been merged with the ESS7. The variables downloaded in 2018 have been merged with the ESS8. The variables downloaded in 2020 have been merged with the ESS9.

We will not update the regional variables already added to an ESS round.

If the datasources have corrected data, it is possible that the same variable will have different values in the data downloaded in 2012 compared to the data downloaded in 2014, 2016, 2018 or 2020.

The downloads may include different variables.


Number of variables in each download

Country 1 111 2 880 3 801 3 732 3 693
NUTS 1 467 758 837 905 983
NUTS 2 467 755 942 1 023 1 103
NUTS 3 141 245 381 421 464
Regions in Russia 26        
Israel1   247      

1 = Israel is one region. We have collected a number of variables "similar" to the EUROSTAT variables available for the other ESS-regions. In 2016 and 2018, data for Israel is included in some of the country level variables.


Detailed overview of the variables available in each download

Please note that a variable, for example "Area", can be registered for each year. In this way, we may have more than 20 variables for one variable.

  1. Variables downloaded in 2012

  2. Variables downloaded in 2014

  3. Variables downloaded in 2016

  4. Variables downloaded in 2018

  5. Variables downloaded in 2020