Source Questionnaire Development
The ESS aims to achieve high methodological standards, striving for optimal comparability in the data collected across all countries. This is only possible through the use of high quality questions that are designed to ensure that they are as comparable as possible across countries.
Core module development
The documents in the sidebar detail the development of each section of the core module of the ESS questionnaire, including recommendations made by academic experts who were consulted during the early planning stages of the ESS. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the questionnaire development process.
Whilst a key purpose of the core module is to provide continuity across rounds, the questionnaire has evolved over the life of the ESS to ensure the survey remains fit for purpose. Some items were cut from the core module following Round 5 to shorten the length of the interview. Several new items were subsequently added in ESS Round 8 to improve the measurement of key concepts including media use, national and European identity, attitudes to homosexuality and political efficacy. Documentation on the development of the new items will be provided together with the data release.
In advance of ESS Round 10, the Core Scientific Team (CST) will, in collaboration with subject experts, revisit the entire core module. Each thematic area of the source questionnaire will be assessed for its ongoing social significance and policy relevance, as well as the quality of measurement achieved by the original items. Experts will also be invited to comment on any perceived thematic gaps in the questionnaire, resulting from changes in the social and political landscape of Europe over two decades. The review will report in 2018.
Since ESS Round 4, before the start of the data collection the CST undertakes a consultation process with participating countries on a number of items whose answer categories need to be adapted to the national context. For ESS Round 8 these include questions on income, religion, education, marital and relationship status, and ancestry.
The country-specific categories are then mapped and postcoded using either international standards or ESS-specific standards to ensure optimal comparability across countries.
Rotating module development
The ESS uses a carefully designed model for cross-national questionnaire design and pre-testing. A combination of qualitative and quantitative pre-testing strategies are employed during the design process of each rotating module to try and achieve optimal comparability across countries. The source questionnaire is designed in British English, but the process is infused with cross-cultural input (both methodological and substantive).
The design and development process lasts for 20 months – from the appointment of the successful question module design team through to the release of the source questionnaire for the round. It incorporates expert review from members of the CST as well as the national teams, alongside coding item characteristics to predict their validity and reliability using the Survey Quality Predictor (SQP), cognitive interviewing, advance translation and quantitative testing on omnibus surveys and in a two-nation pilot survey. This diagram shows the questionnaire development and pre-testing process for ESS7 rotating modules.
Since ESS Round 4, the design and development of rotating modules has been fully documented through a specially designed questionnaire design template. The final template that is produced shows the concepts underpinning the design of the module as well as the wording of the final questions included in the survey. All templates released so far are available from the sidebar.