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ESS data used

Round 2, Round 7: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland

English title Are personal values associated with preferences in seeking health advice or treatment in Europe?
Language English
Type Journal article
Year 2019


This study examined the associations of personal value priorities and country-level personal freedom with individuals’ preferences to seek health advice or treatment from either conventional medical experts (doctors) or practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Data came from the European Social Survey round 2 (14 countries, N = 21,810) and round 7 (12 countries, N = 20,903). Valuing conservation (vs. openness to change) was positively associated with preferring to consult doctors and negatively associated with preferring to consult CAM practitioners and the use of CAM treatments. Valuing self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) was positively associated with CAM use. Living in countries characterised by a higher level of personal freedom was negatively associated with preferring doctors’ consultations, and positively associated with preferring CAM practitioners and CAM use. The results highlight the importance of considering individual-level motivational factors and context-specific factors when aiming to understand healthcare utilisation.

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Journal:Psychology, Health & Medicine
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